In less severe cases of absent pulmonary artery, closure of the ventricular
septal defect may be sufficient. However, when pulmonary dilation results
in bronchial compression and right heart failure develops from the insufficiency
of the pulmonary valve, it is necessary to implant a functional pulmonary
Options for new prosthetic valves include aortic or pulmonary homografts
(human) or other bioprosthetic valved conduits, such as bovine internal
jugular vein (Contegra®) or porcine bioprostheses (Hancock®), among others.
Valve placement is normally performed surgically, though recent experimental
studies (Bonhoeffer and associates) have demonstrated the potential for
a transcatheter approach.
Pulmonary valve replacements are usually performed without significant risk
and result in a decrease in symptoms as well as improved right ventricular