In less severe cases of absent pulmonary artery, closure of the ventricular septal defect may be sufficient. However, when pulmonary dilation results in bronchial compression and right heart failure develops from the insufficiency of the pulmonary valve, it is necessary to implant a functional pulmonary valve.
Options for new prosthetic valves include aortic or pulmonary homografts (human) or other bioprosthetic valved conduits, such as bovine internal jugular vein (Contegra®) or porcine bioprostheses (Hancock®), among others.
Valve placement is normally performed surgically, although a non-surgical, transcatheter approach (Melody® valve) may be possible.
Pulmonary valve replacements are usually performed without significant risk and result in a decrease in symptoms as well as improved right ventricular function.